Situated on the equator on Africa's east coast, Kenya has been described as "the cradle of humanity". In the Great Rift Valley palaeontologists have discovered some of the earliest evidence of man's ancestors. Kenya’s topography is incredibly diverse. The country is a land of mountains, valleys, open plains, deserts, forests, lakes, savannahs and a golden sanded coastline. With its scenic beauty and abundant wildlife, Kenya is one of Africa's major safari destinations. Coffee was introduced to Kenya by the British with seeds from neighbouring Ethiopia and also from Reunion (Bourbon) island. The development of hybrids during the 1930s brought about the highly successful varietals, SL28 and SL34 - coffees that are now world famous and highly admired for their wonderful complexity in the cup with unrivalled lemony acidity.
The country’s best coffees are grown in the Central Highlands on the southern slopes of Mt. Kenya to the north and in the foothills of the Aberdare Mountains to the west. Here the coffee is grown on farms with altitudes of up to 1,800 metres above sea level - and this, along with the fertile volcanic soils of the region, is the key to the almost unbelievable flavours that can be found within the cup. The best coffees in Kenya are produced by the cooperatives of which there are around 300 comprised of between half a million to 600,000 smallholder members. About 60% of Kenya’s coffee is produced on cooperatives with estates and plantations making up the balance. Typically a smallholding or ‘shamba’ is comprised of shade-grown coffee, a house, the family cow and a good variety of vegetables and fruit for the use of the family.
The Kiunyu factory is located in the Gichugu division of the Kirinyaga district close to the town of Kerugoya. It serves the Kagumoini, Kianduma, Kiambuku, Kiambatha, Gature and Kiamuki villages and is affiliated to the Karithathi Farmers Co-op Society along with the Kabingara factory. There are now 1100 active members of the Kiunyu factory which is managed by Matthew Nthiga along with 8 permanent staff members. Smallholder members each have on average around 1 acre of land for coffee growing alongside macadamia, beans, banana and maize. The area has deep, well drained and fertile red volcanic soil at altitudes of 1644 metres above sea level with 1400mm of rainfall annually. Smallholder members of this factory have access to training and technical advice in an effort to increase the yield.
The coffee is handpicked by the smallholder members and delivered to the Kiunyu factory where it is pulped. This initially separates the dense beans from the immature ‘mbuni’s (floaters) using water floatation which means the denser beans will sink and be sent through channels to the fermentation tank. This first stage of fermentation will last for around 24 hours, after which the beans are washed and sent to the secondary fermentation tank for another 12-24 hours. Once the fermentation process is completed, the beans enter the washing channels where floaters are separated further and the dense beans are cleaned of mucilage. The washed beans will then enter soaking tanks where they can sit under clean water for as long as another 24 hours. This soaking process allows amino acids and proteins in the cellular structure of each bean to develop which results in higher levels of acidity and complex fruit flavours in the cup - it is thought that this process of soaking contributes to the flavour profiles that Kenyan coffees are so famed for.
The beans are then transferred to the initial drying tables where they are laid in a thin layer to allow around 50% of the moisture to be quickly removed. This first stage of drying can last around 6 hours before the beans are gathered and laid in thicker layers for the remaining 5-10 days of the drying period. The dry parchment coffee is then delivered to a private mill and put into ‘bodegas’ to rest – these are raised cells made of chicken wire which allows the coffee to breathe fully. Coffee is traditionally sold through the country’s auction system, though recent amendments to the coffee law of Kenya have brought about the introduction of direct trading whereby farmers can by-pass the auction and sell directly to speciality roasters around the world. It is this system we have chosen for our Falcon Speciality offering since we believe it brings about better returns for the smallholder.